PLANILLA MEZCLA ASFÁLTICA EN CALIENTE

PLANILLA MEZCLA ASFÁLTICA EN CALIENTE

PLANILLA MEZCLA ASFÁLTICA EN CALIENTE

La planilla mezcla asfáltica en caliente mezclas asfálticas se emplean en la construcción de firmes, ya sea en capas de rodadura o en capas inferiores y su función es proporcionar una superficie de rodamiento cómoda, segura y económica a los usuarios de las vías de comunicación, facilitando la circulación de los vehículos, aparte de transmitir suficientemente las cargas debidas al tráfico a la
explanada para que sean soportadas por ésta.

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ASPECTOS FUNDAMENTALES

1. La Función Resistente, que determina los materiales y los espesores de las capas que habremos de emplear en su construcción.
2. La Finalidad, que determina las condiciones de textura y acabado que se deben exigir a las capas superiores del firme, para que resulten seguras y confortables. A estas capas superiores de le denomina pavimento. Las tipologías de los firmes de acuerdo a su comportamiento y respuesta se pueden dividir en los siguientes tipos:

a) Firmes Flexibles. (Base Granular).

Constituidos por capas de sub–base y base de material granular, y por un tratamiento superficial o por una capa de mezcla asfáltica de espesores muy delgados que pueden ir hasta los 10 cm. regularmente, las capas granulares resisten fundamentalmente la acción del tráfico, la capa de rodadura sirve para impermeabilizar el firme, resistir los efectos abrasivos del tráfico y proporcionar una rodadura cómoda y segura.

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b) Firmes Flexibles. (Base Asfáltica).
Compuesto por una base y un pavimento asfáltico y el cual está constituido por una capa intermedia y otra de rodadura, la sub–base puede ser granular o bien tratada con un ligante hidráulico o hidrocarbonado.

c) Firmes Semi–rígidos . (Base tratada con ligantes hidráulicos). Constituido por una capa de base tratada con ligantes hidráulicos, o de concreto, la sub–base suele ser de material granular, pudiendo ser estabilizada, el pavimento está formado por una o dos capas de mezcla asfáltica (rodadura e intermedia).

d) Firmes Rígidos. (Pavimentos de hormigón). Están formados por una losa de hormigón colocada directamente sobre la explanada, o sobre una capa de base granular o estabilizada o un hormigón pobre, la losa de hormigón actúa como capa de rodadura.

MEZCLAS ASFÁLTICAS

Las mezclas asfálticas como ya hemos visto anteriormente sirven para soportar directamente las acciones de los neumáticos y transmitir las cargas a las capas inferiores, proporcionando unas condiciones adecuadas de rodadura, cuando se emplean en capas superficiales; y como material con resistencia simplemente estructural o mecánica en las demás capas de los firmes.

Como material simplemente estructural se pueden caracterizar de varias formas. La evaluaciónde parte de sus propie dades por la cohesión y el rozamiento interno es comúnmente utilizada; o por un módulo de rigidez longitudinal y un módulo transversal, o incluso por un valor de estabilidad y de deformación. Como en otros materiales hay que considerar también, la resistencia a la rotura, las leyes de fatiga y las deformaciones plásticas.

El comportamiento de la mezcla depende de circunstancias externas a ellas mismas, tales como son el tiempo de aplicación de la carga y de la temperatura. Por esta causa su caracterización y propiedades tienen que estar vinculadas a estos factores, temperatura y duración de la carga, lo que implica la necesidad del conocimiento de la reología del material.

CONTENIDO DE LA TABLA

– Composición de la mezcla (Grava, Gravilla, Arena Chancada, Arena Natura, Cementoasfáltico)
– Dosificación (Porcentajes de los agregados)
– Peso especifico de los agregados
– Volumen de los agregados
– Peso especifico máximo
– Número de briqueta
– Altura de la briqueta
– Factor de corrección de la briqueta
– Pesos de la probeta (seco al aire, canastillo, sumergida con canastillo)
– Volumen de la muestra
– Porcentaje de asfalto
– Estabilidad (real, corregida)
– Flujo

 

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mayo 13, 2018

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