CALCULO DE MOVIMIENTO DE TIERRA

CALCULO DE MOVIMIENTO DE TIERRA

CALCULO DE MOVIMIENTO DE TIERRA

Para realizar al cálculo del Movimiento de Tierra, área mediante este método se traza a escala la sección en papel cuadriculado y luego se cuenta el número de cuadros que hay en la sección y se multiplica por el área del cuadro.

Se entiende por movimiento de tierras el conjunto de actuaciones a realizar en la preparación de un terreno para la ejecución de una obra. Se denomina excavación a la separación o extracción de determinadas partes de dicho volumen, una vez superadas las fuerzas internas que lo mantenían unido: cohesión, adherencia, capilaridad, etc. Llamamos carga a la acción de depositar los productos de excavación en un determinado medio de transporte.

La maquinaria de movimiento de tierras es un tipo de equipo empleado en la construcción de caminos (carreteras o caminos rurales), ferrocarriles, túneles, aeropuertos, obras hidráulicas y edificaciones. Está diseñada para llevar a cabo varias funciones; entre ellas, soltar y remover la tierra, elevar y cargar la tierra en vehículos que han de transportarla, distribuir la tierra en tongadas de espesor controlado, y compactar la tierra. Algunas máquinas pueden efectuar más de una de estas operaciones.

Entre otras, se pueden mencionar las siguientes máquinas para movimiento de tierra:

Pala excavadora. Existen varios tipos: por su forma de locomoción pueden clasificarse en excavadoras sobre orugas o sobre neumáticos.
Topadora, a menudo conocida por su nombre en inglés, bulldozer (véase maquinaria de construcción). Estas máquinas remueven y empujan la tierra con su cuchilla frontal. La eficiencia de estas máquinas se limita a desplazamientos de poco más de 100 m en horizontal. Existen dos tipos: bulldozer (cuchilla fija) y angledozer (su cuchilla puede pivotar sobre un eje vertical). Estas máquinas suelen estar equipadas con dientes de acero en la parte posterior, que pueden ser hincados en el terreno duro para roturarlo antes de empujar.
Pala cargadora frontal. Estos equipos se utilizan para remover tierra relativamente suelta y cargarla en vehículos de transporte, como camiones o volquetes. Son generalmente articuladas para permitir maniobras en un espacio reducido.
Mototraílla o simplemente traílla, conocida también por su nombre inglés scraper. Estas máquinas se utilizan para cortar capas uniformes de terrenos de una consistencia suave, abriendo la cuchilla que se encuentra en la parte frontal del recipiente. Al avanzar, el material cortado es empujado al interior del recipiente. Cuando este se llena, se cierra la cuchilla, y se transporta el material hasta el lugar donde será depositado. Para esto se abre el recipiente por el lado posterior, y el material contenido dentro del recipiente es empujado para que salga formando una tongada uniforme.
Motoniveladora, también conocida por el nombre inglés grader. Se utiliza para mezclar los terrenos, cuando provienen de canteras diferentes, para darles una granulometría uniforme, y disponer las tongadas en un espesor conveniente para ser compactadas, y para perfilar los taludes tanto de rellenos como de cortes.
Volquete.
Compactadora.
Tuneladora.
Draga.

Contenido:

  • El Cálculo de Volúmenes de Tierra se determina a partir del área de las secciones Transversales.
  • VOLUMEN ENTRE SECCIONES TRANSVERSALES
    • Cómo debemos analizarlos?
    • Cómo determinar Áreas?
    • Cálculo de Áreas por Coordenadas
    • Cálculo de Áreas por cuadros
  • VOLÚMENES ELEMENTALES
  • MÉTODO DE LAS ÁREAS MEDIAS (Las dos secciones en corte o relleno)
    • Otro caso Común es que una sección este en corte y otra en relleno.
    • Fórmula de Cálculo
    • Otras Fórmulas Básicas
    • Secciones con nivel variable o a tres niveles:
  • CONSTRUCCIÓN DE TERRRAZAS
    • Caso I. Todos los vértices en corte o relleno
    • Caso II. Dos puntos en relleno y dos en corte en igual dirección
    • Caso III. Tres vértices en corte y uno en relleno o viceversa.
    • Caso IV. Dos vértices en corte y dos en diagonal
  • Bibliografía

REFERENCIAS

  • – Diseño de pilotes de acero
  • – Diseño estructural de pilotes de acero

 

COMPARTE Y DESCARGA LUEGO AQUI ABAJO

 

enero 22, 2018

Etiquetas:
  • Sres. creo que para saber los volúmenes de corte como de terraplén esto se lo dejaremos a los topo grafos ya que con los nuevos aparatos de topografía que han salido tendremos estos datos los mas reales que se requieren para realizar las estimaciones tanto de corte como de terraplén.
    Con respecto al papel milimétrico esos procedimientos creo que ya son del pasado y creo que las estaciones totales dan ya el área exacta para sacar los volúmenes de los trabajos que se están realizando en la obra que se esta realizando.

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