ESFUERZOS Y DEFORMACIONES EN EL PAVIMENTO

ESFUERZOS Y DEFORMACIONES EN EL PAVIMENTO

ESFUERZOS Y DEFORMACIONES EN EL PAVIMENTO

Introducción

Actualmente, la mayoría de los métodos de diseño de pavimentos no consideran la contribución de cada capa en la resistencia a la fatiga, asentamientos permanentes y el de agrietamiento por temperatura, mas aún, cuando cada capa del pavimento tiene una función propia. Los métodos denominados empíricos-mecanísticos pueden considerar la contribución estructural de las diferentes capas de un pavimento flexible, lo que no ocurre por ejemplo, con el método AASHTO 1993.

¿TAL VEZ BUSQUES ESTO?

Recientemente la incorporación de los conceptos de la mecánica estructural denominados “conceptos mecanísticos” es utilizada en el análisis, diseño y refuerzo de la estructura de los pavimentos. Las Agencias de Transportes de los Estados de Illinois, Kentucky, Minnesota y Washington están adoptando procedimientos de diseño mecanísticos.

El presente capítulo se difunde la consideración de los conceptos mecanísticos en la resiliencia
de los materiales y la evaluación de la sub-rasante.

 Módulo Elástico

El parámetro que se utiliza en la estimación de deformaciones bajo cargas estáticas es el módulo de elasticidad. El módulo elástico relaciona los esfuerzos aplicados y las deformaciones resultantes. El nivel de esfuerzos aplicado al suelo a través de la estructura del pavimento es mínimo comparado con la deformación en falla, por ello se asume que existe una relación lineal entre los esfuerzos y las deformaciones.

La teoría de la elasticidad

Permite utilizar ensayos de laboratorio y campo para la determinación del módulo elástico. La Figura 5.1 muestra los ensayos disponibles en nuestro medio. El ensayo de compresión confinada utilizando el consolidómetro simula el comportamiento deformacional que tendrá el suelo debajo de una cimentación superficial.

El esfuerzo de confinamiento lateral es variable durante la prueba, dada por la pared metálica del equipo que no permite la deformación horizontal de la muestra. El ensayo permite obtener el módulo elástico en la condición natural y humedecida. En suelos arenosos el humedecimiento bajo carga ocurre de manera inmediata y es posible medir el asentamiento adicional por este efecto.

El ensayo triaxial estudia el comportamiento deformacional del suelo bajo confinamiento y permite obtener módulos elásticos para cualquier nivel de presión de confinamiento y deformación. Los parámetros se utilizan cuando las presiones verticales transmitidas alcanzan profundidades importantes. El equipo no permite medir el efecto del humedecimiento.

Ensayos para la Obtención del Módulo Elástico

Se estudia el efecto de las cargas en el pavimento. Cada ciclo de carga produce en el suelo una componente de deformación plástica, no recuperable y una componente de deformación elástica, recuperable. Con los ciclos siguientes de cargas los incrementos de deformación plástica producidos tienden a desaparecer, en cambio las deformaciones elásticas tienden a ser constantes.

El Módulo Resiliente

MR relaciona el esfuerzo aplicado y la deformación elástica en la condición estable o residual cuando el suelo presente un comportamiento elástico. El módulobresiliente no representa el comportamiento total, desde el inicio del ciclo de cargas hasta el final. Sin embargo, el módulo resiliente relaciona las cargas móviles o rápidas y las deformaciones instantáneas resultantes.

El valor del Mr puede ser 10 veces el valor del Módulo Elástico.Los suelos granulares que conforman las capas del pavimento, presentan una adecuada gradación y compactación. El comportamiento de estas capas granulares, bajo los ciclos de carga, no presentará deformaciones plásticas significativas.

Se asume que durante el adecuado proceso constructivo, las deformaciones plásticas se anularán. En este caso es apropiado modelar el comportamiento de las capas con el Módulo Resiliente, MR. Al respecto la Guía AASHTO, 93 presenta valores establecidos en el laboratorio, basados en el valor CBR.

 

                                👇COMPARTE AHORA Y DESCARGA GRATIS AQUÍ ABAJO👇

 

julio 16, 2018

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